Effect of Pheromone Blend Components, Sex Ratio, and Population Size on the Mating of, Behavioral and Developmental Responses of, Evaluation of Botanicals for Management of Piercing–Sucking Pests and the Effect on Beneficial Arthropod Populations in Tea Trees.
In the case of A. assamensis, although β-sitosterol's effect on biting behavior is greatly reduced, the compound's effects become pronounced when it is combined with phenolics. Its other host plants include Actinodaphnae obovata Nees (Blume), A. anquistifolia CI
Larvae were given a choice between L. grandifolia and water. Muga silk is produced by the silkworm Antheraea assamensis Helfer, a polyphagous insect feeding on a wide range of plants viz., so m (Persea bombycina) and soalu (Litsea monopetala) being the primary host plants, and dighloti (Litsea … Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the 2000; Chapman 2003). In the case of the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba, all the larvae opted for water except the NONE larvae, which opted for both the choic-es (p < 0.001) (Figure 4). JL
The chemicals viz. The lac removed from the sticks is known commercially as sticklack (Gupta 1994).
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. PPF-5893: Impact assessment of petroleum crude oil on muga silkworm and their host plants in Assam . Reisenman
A chi-square test was per-formed between the percent of choosing larvae to show orientation preference. In NONE larvae, mean percent consumption per minute was higher in the case of non-hosts (p < 0.05). 2001). In this work, we re-port the role of the antenna and maxillary palp in food selection by A. assamensis larvae based on food and odor choice tests. The experimental materials in the present investigation consist of the muga silkworm A. assamensis and its four food plants, Persea bombycina King ex.
Attraction and biting response of the muga silkworm towards different chemicals. Muga (Antheraea assamensis) silkworm is endemic to Assam and adjoining-area in North-Eastern India such as Meghalaya because of its unique climatic conditions which fulfil its ecological requirements in its natural adobe. Newly hatched out larvae were brushed on each potted plants @ 125 nos. PC
Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. K
When larvae were given a choice between P. bombycina and water, 80% of the UNI larvae and 70% of the MAX and ANT larvae opted for P. bombycina. S
Visual field observation of the feeding behavior of the larvae also supported this observation. R
The sensory codes underlying feeding behaviour, Multimodal Chemosensory Integration through the Maxillary Palp in, Olfactory capabili-ties of the gustatory chemoreceptors of the tobacco hornworm larvae, Pore structures in in-sect olfactory sensilla: a review of data and concepts, International Journal of Insect Morphology And Embryology. Mean food consump-tion per minute was minimum for MAX larvae (Figure 2C). (Neog et al.
NONE larvae could not differentiate the non-host from water, and the percentage of larvae choosing both the options was the same (50%). Diseases to Muga silkworm causing huge economic losses and we are developing new technology to control diseases for better future of sericulture in North-East India. The silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), grows primarily on Persea bombycina and Litsea polyantha. Studies on the influence of host plants and effect of chemical stimulants on the feeding behavior in the muga silkworm, Chemosensory selectivity of output neurons innervating an identified, sexually isomorphic olfactory glomerulus, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Fictive chewing activity in motor neurons and interneurons of the su-boesophageal ganglion of, A peripheral input of thoracic origin inhibits chewing movements in the larvae of, Induc-tion of orientational and feeding preferences in, Induc-tion of orientation and feeding preferences in, Sensory aspects of host plant discrimination by lepi-dopterous larvae, An inventory of taste in caterpillars: Each species its own key, Acta Zoologica Academiae scien-tiarum hungaricae, What makes a cater-pillar eat? Dr. D.K. To confirm the role of different phenolic compounds, sterols, and essential oils, attraction, biting and feeding tests were conducted with standard chemicals. Insects having un-successful operations were not considered further. 30 eggs per host larva. In plant-eating insects where larvae develop on a single host, the ovipositional behavior of adult females determines the larval habitat (Gothard et al. The behavioral responses to plant extracts prepared from the host and non-host plants were assessed by using one all-glass Y-tube olfactometer (3 cm diameter and 15 cm long) (modified from Blackmer et al. Survivability of larvae till spinning and other cocoon parameters was then recorded. . Rodriguez-Saona
2003). After crushing into paste, the content was kept under methanol HCl for 48 hours (<) with intermittent shaking. The bite marks were recorded after 24 hours, which was repeated five times.
Percentage of larvae opting for odor choice in Y-tube olfactometer. Both Antennae And Maxillary Palpi Were Fully Competent In Preference For Host Plants,Persea Bomby-Cina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) And Litsea Polyantha Juss, Over The Non-Hosts,Litsea Grandifolia Teschner And Ziziphus Jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). High quality figures are available online. Two others, Litsea salicifolia Roxburgh ex. (1951). External factors may include host plant volatiles, surface chemistry, color, texture, and shape (Rausher 1978, Brown et al. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. Leaf disks were prepared by soaking a whatman fibre disc (GF/A, 14 mm in diameter) in water extracts of the leaves of the plants considered or only with water. The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Disease-free A. assamensis eggs were obtained from the Seed Technology Laboratory of Central Muga Eri Research & Training Institute (CMER&TI), Central Silk Board, Govt, of India, Lahdoigarh, Jorhat, India. Prior to experiments prophylactic measures of disinfestations were given to both outdoor plants and indoor devices. When the larvae were reared on tender leaves, survival percent of early instar larvae (1–2 instars) was above 80% for all the host plants and 50–70% during 3rd and 4th instars. Neog
2005). It has been proposed that in order to activate the chewing circuit and initiate feeding, the total excitatory input from all taste sensilla on the mouthpart must be suf-ficient to surpass the threshold level of inhibition to the chewing circuit determined by thoracic inhibition and input from deterrent sensory cells (Del Campo and Miles 2003). The physiological and molecular basis of host plant acceptability in insects has been exam-ined extensively (Schoonhoven and Dethier 1966; Hanson and Dethier 1973; Stadler and Hanson 1975; Schoonhoven 1987; De Boer 1992; Asaoka and Shibuya 1995; Steinbrecht 1997; Mitchell et al. The disease occurs throughout the year and makes maximum foliar damages during rainy seasons. Many specialists on the angiosperms Rutaceae, Magnoliaceae, or Monimiaceae maintained the ability to detoxify the Lauraceae (Scriber et al. Three replicates of the tender, semi-mature and mature leaves were maintained. Moreover, an attempt was made to induce feeding on an artificial diet fortified with the chemicals by the early instar larvae to test their efficacy. Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. 1962). 2004) (Figure 1A). Settling percent of silkworm larvae with respect to tender (T), medium (Me) and mature (Ma) leaves of different host plants, (1) P. bombycina, (2) L. polyantha, (3) L. salicifolia and (4) L. citrata.
Therefore, after the initial approach to the host plant based on olfactory perception, the taste receptors probably played a somewhat dominant role in the feeding-acceptance decision-making process, and hence the MAX larvae exhibited equal prefer-ence towards both the host plants. Itagaki
Very few studies have been carried out so far re-garding the feeding behavior of A. assamensis with respect to the influence of host plant chemical content. Lack of knowledge of its genetics and host plants is a major bottleneck. JJA
Saikia M, Singh YT, Bhattacharya A, Mazumdar-Leighton S. Expression of diverse midgut serene proteinases in the sericigenous Lepidoptera Antheraea assamensis (Helfer) is influenced by choice of host plant species. Larvae were immobilized on ice for 15-30 minutes and the peripheral sense organs, namely the antenna, maxillary palp, maxillary galea, labrum epipharynx, and labial palp, were removed selectively by microsurgery, keeping only the organ considered for study. As all the larvae were grown on leaves of P. bombycina prior to the tests, antennae may have become tuned to the odor of P. bombycina only.
assamensis , the same fifth instar larvae retaining only labrum‐epipharynx or galeal sensilla were subjected to food choice tests. Zhu
Following the incubation for 45 minutes at 32° C, an absorbance of 290 nm was measured after the reaction was stopped with the addition of 1M TCA. When the larva had eaten about 50% of the area of one of the two plant species (A or B), the test was stopped. Similarly, each of them were also com-petent in rejecting the non-host, as the NONE larvae failed to differentiate between host and non-host. 1981, Miller and Strickler 1984, Harris and Rose 1990, Renwick 1990, Rewick and Chew 1994, Huang and Renwick 1995, Landolt and Molina 1996, Carter and Feeny 1999, Carter et al. Unique and native to the North Eastern region of India, particularly in the Assam province, the muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis, Heifer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is an economically important insect. It is found in Assam in northeast India where 99% of its production occurs.. Mitchell
added after the addition of trichloroacetic (TCA) acid. . TJ
NONE larvae could not differentiate the non-host from water, and opted for both the choices. ALL and UNI larvae opted only for the host.
1999, Frankfater and Scriber 1999, 2002). The relationship between the food habits of insects and the chemical components of host plants have been extensively studied (Verschaffelt 1910, Watanabe 1958, Thorsteinson 1960, Ito and Tanaka 1959, 1961, Cantelo and Jacobson 1979, Yoshida 1983, Haynes et al. Abstract. CE
Twenty newly hatched larvae were allowed to feed on different leaf types that were reared up to spinning. AW
The percentage of choosing larvae was based on the number of larvae in one group opting for a particular food. Their survivability was recorded up to 2nd instar. The au-thors are also grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments for im-proving the quality of the work. (Table 4). Heisswolf
We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
In NONE larvae, the mean percent consump-tion per minute was higher in the case of non-hosts (p < 0.05). Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), the producer of golden silk, is a lepidopteran insect endemic to northeastern India. Thus, the factors responsible for attraction and biting behavior are quite different from that of B. mori. While it is well documented that the gustatory system plays a leading role in food discrimi-nation (Hanson and Dethier 1973), insects need to rely on olfactory senses in natural habitats in order to reduce the cost of host plant searching. 2010; 20:1–13. These plants are widely available in the states of Assam, Turlings
Thus, in the case of both the non-host plants, rejection behavior was regulated by the anten-nae and the maxillary palp.
This result confirmed that the larvae required either the antenna or the maxillary palp for mediating normal food preference. The results of the present study suggest that, out of leaves of different host plants belonging to Lauraceae family, the newly hatched A. assamensis were mostly attracted by the medium leaves of P. bombycina compared to all other leaves of different age groups. The mean percent consumption per minute was higher in the case of non-hosts (p < 0.05). β-sitosterol, myrcetin, 7, 2′, 4′ trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone, caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde, dodecyl aldehyde, azaindole and gallic acid, which were found to exhibit attraction, biting behavior or deterrent effects were sprayed three times on the leaves of some plants grown on cement tubs under a shed house covered with nylon nets.
specialist insects were much higher than those of related generalist swallowtails.
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. However, the percentage of ANT and MAX larvae opting for L. polyantha was significant-ly reduced compared to that of the control.
When given a choice between L. polyantha and Z. jujuba, ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae opted for L. polyantha, and the percent of larvae opting for L. polyantha was 100 in each case (p < 0.001). Insects use various sensory systems to locate their hosts (Chapman 2003; Bullas-Appleton et al.
Hook and Litsea monopetela Persoon, are regarded as its primary host plants. Riffel
M Saikia*, YT Singh*, A Bhattacharya and S Mazumdar-Leighton, (2010), ‘Expression of diverse midgut serine proteinases in the sericigenous Lepidoptera Antheraea assamensis (Helfer) is influenced by choice of host plant species’ Insect Molecular Biology 21st September 2010 (Article online ahead of print). Rearing was conducted till spinning. For settling percent, the differences in means between host plants and maturity level and interaction between host plants and maturity were statistically significant (Figure 1). PAL activity was significantly higher in medium leaves of P. bombycina and L. polyantha compared to other leaves.
Both Were Competent In Rejecting The Non-Hosts , L. Grandifolia And Z. Jujuba. The mean percent consumption per minute was significantly lower in ANT and MAX in comparison to that of UNI larvae (Figure 2C, D). 2001, Percy et al. Obermaier
After the insect lands on a potentially suitable host-plant, touch and taste become more important. The maxillary palp not only contains olfactory sense organs, but also gus-tatory sense organs. A. assamensis is multivoltine (five to six broods per year) and semi-domesticated in nature. The silk that is produced by this insect is highly lustrous and is golden yellow or creamy white in color. , varied from 2 minutes to 1 hour from the date of brushing onwards plants were prayed times. East Institute of Science & Technology Govt of India acidified with diluted HCl and extracted with CH2Cl2 stem... Im-Proving the quality of the semi-synthetic diet used for attraction and biting behavior as they did combination! Aphid infestation by 33.90-85.45 % was kept under methanol HCl for 48 hours ( < ) with intermittent.... Functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way to! 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Society member subscription is required to view non-Open access content ) for larvae on diets 19 20., Persea bombycina Kostermans ( Laurales: Lauraceae ) and “ Soalu (! Marks were recorded after 24 hours, which was used in the plates and five newly hatched out larvae given., varied from 2 minutes to 1 × 1 cm pieces ( Whatman no and provide... Of India variation of biochemical parameters with respect to both outdoor plants and devices... Different instars the four host plants 80 percent or more, the content was under! Mediating normal food preference in fifth instar larvae retaining NONE of the host for im-proving the quality of larvae! Adaptor was connected to the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments for im-proving the quality of the organs.